Drilling into Europa would be the biggest engineering challenge. To show this, I’ll calculate the required energy to pierce Europa’s ice surface.
I’ll also look at other methods of reaching Europa’s ocean as well.
Europa is Jupiter’s moon, yet it’s smaller than Earth’s moon. Part of the challenge is Europa is 390 million miles from Earth.
It’s believed Europa has twice the amount of water of all Earth’s oceans combined. Unfortunately, but not to anyone’s surprise, a thick sheet of ice covers the ocean.
I find this all amazing, but it does make our mission much more complex.
Why look for life on Jupiter’s moon Europa?
In a similar environment to Earth, the chemical elements for life may exist in Europa’s ocean.
Plus, humans love challenges. I think after we set foot on Mars, we’ll focus on Europa.
But, our mission to Europa will be much more difficult than landing humans on Mars. To illustrate, here’s a comparison between Earth and Europa:
|Average ocean depth||2.3 miles||62.1 miles|
|Volume of water||0.31 billion cubic miles||0.65 billion to 0.96 billion cubic miles|
|Diameter||7,917.5 miles||1,900 miles|
|Average distance from Sun||93 million miles||485 million miles|
|Surface gravity||7.46 times that of Europa||0.13 times that of Earth|
|Surface pressure||1 bar||10^(-12) bar|
Clearly, Europa is a hostile land. It makes Mars look like a vacation spot.
With today’s tech, it’d be a suicide mission for humans. Even when it becomes safe, I bet it’ll be off-limits to humans.
We wouldn’t want to contaminate Europa with Earth’s bacteria. One day though, it may become a destination spot. Who knows?!
Regardless, I’m excited.
I hope we find life in this harsh environment. It’d mean civilizations much more advanced than us, could be living in far corners of the universe.
The ice sheet covering Europa
According to NASA research, Europa’s ice shell is 25 kilometers thick on average. Also, the ice shell covers an ocean that’s 60 to 150 kilometers deep.
Just imagine an Antarctica like planet. Then make it 100 times more hostile. That’s Europa!
Now, I’m going to use the 25-kilometer ice thickness in my calculations. I understand this ice thickness isn’t uniform on Europa. But I’ll use this value as a possible worst-case scenario.
Most all our data for Europa are estimates anyway. Hard facts don’t exist.
Going back to our mission now. The goal is to drill and melt through Europa’s ice to reach the ocean.
Sounds like a crazy sci-fi movie plot. But, people from one-hundred years ago would have viewed our gadgets from today in the same way.
Keep in mind though, what I’m proposing we couldn’t even do on Earth today if we wanted.
Size of the hole in Europa’s ice sheet
With the thickness of the ice out of the way, let’s go over our hole size.
I’ve heard two schools of thought over the hole size:
- Make the hole large
- Make the hole small
Simple, right?! Let’s review these two options.
Drill a large hole: this gives us a large permanent access point. We’ll have many options for different ocean research.
Obviously, the downside is the cost and the difficulty of making a large hole.
To top it off, tidal forces from Jupiter may cause constant shifting of ice. This may even make a large hole size impossible.
Further, a large hole will take more time. This means more things can go wrong before we even complete the work.
Melt a small hole: we’ll consider the Cryobot to help us with our hole size.
Cryobots are robots designed to penetrate water ice using heat. These robots on average weigh 25-kilograms and are 1 meter in length. They also have a radius of 0.06 meters.
So, the hole we’d make needs to be large enough to support a Cryobot.
The ideal hole size: the small hole size is a no brainer. And frankly, we may only need to go down less than 100 meters.
Then, we transmit the analyzed melted ice sample data back to Earth.
But, what if we want to send a small submarine down the hole? We’d then need a large hole. Of course, if it’s too big of a hole, it’ll be impractical.
Also, if we want to keep the hole open we’ll need to insulate the tunnel wall. For this reason, the hole can’t be too small.
So, to make our calculation interesting, we’ll choose an in-between hole size. A hole 1-meter in diameter.
The ideal location for penetrating Europa’s ice sheet
The goal is to find the easiest location to penetrate. We need to make the following considerations:
- Away from fault zone type areas to not trigger large ice movements
- In thin ice areas to limit the penetration work
- Away from large cracks that may ripple through the tunneling area
- Away from areas where Jupiter’s tidal forces are greatest
Calculations for penetrating Europa’s ice sheet
In our calculations, we’ll go over 3 methods to reach Europa’s ocean:
- Drilling into the ice sheet
- Melting through the ice sheet
- Melting through the ice sheet with a lid covering the hole opening
This way, we’ll see if other methods beat directly drilling into Europa.
Method #1: Drilling into the ice sheet
Step #1: Calculate the mass of the ice column we need to remove
This is the amount of ice we need to remove to make our 1-meter diameter, 25-kilometer deep hole.
= mass of the ice column
= density of ice is
= height of the ice column
= radius of the hole
Step #2: Calculate the potential energy. In other words, the energy required to lift the entire mass of ice out from our hole.
Also, since we’ll remove the ice column at a constant speed, work isn’t turned into kinetic energy.
= potential energy
= mass of the ice column
= gravitational force on Europa is 1.315 m/s²
= height of the ice column
So we need a 164.4-megawatt electric generator to produce electricity for 1-hour.
If we assume our ice column remover machine is 50% efficient, we’d need 328.8MWh. Or, 0.038 megawatts for 1 year.
I already know the efficiency will be low given the hostile land.
Regardless, that’s a lot of power. And a lot of equipment we’d need to haul over from Earth.
Method #2: Melting through the ice sheet
Here we’d use a nuclear-powered drilling bot. Powered by a small nuclear reactor, the bot would heat the ice as it moves down.
With this approach, we wouldn’t need a lot of heavy equipment. Also, there’d be fewer moving parts.
The more moving parts we have, the more things can go wrong.
I discussed some of the problems of drilling into Mars with a mega drill. Obviously, we wouldn’t need a mega drill on Europa, but we’d still need a decently sized drill. Plus, millions of tons of shoring equipment.
Step #1: Calculate the energy to raise the temperature of the ice column from -160°C to -75°C
This sublimation temperature is all theory. At −75 °C and under near-vacuum conditions of 10−6 bar, ice sublimation should occur.
Keep in mind, the surface pressure on Europa is 10−12 bar. And the surface temperature of Europa is -160°C.
To that end, we calculate the energy required to heat the column of ice
= energy required to increase the temperature
= mass of the ice column
= specific heat of ice is 2,108 joules/kg°C
= change of temperature
Step #2: Calculate the energy for enthalpy of fusion of ice and enthalpy of vaporization
Here we calculate the energy required to change the state of a substance. All without increasing the temperature.
In our case, going from ice to vapor.
The enthalpy of fusion of ice is 333,550 joules/kg to go from ice to liquid
The enthalpy of vaporization of water is 2,257,000 joules/kg to go from liquid to steam
Step #3: calculate the total energy required
Method #3: Melting through the ice sheet with a lid covering the opening
Step #1: we place a lid on top of our hole. We want to pressurize the hole to about 1 atmosphere. The same air pressure we find on Earth at sea level.
This will keep the melted ice as a liquid. As a result, we don’t need to waste energy boiling the water away as we calculated in Method #2.
Also, the weight of the water should create enough pressure to keep our tunnel from breaking. As a result, we don’t need to engineer a 25-kilometer tunnel wall.
So, we kill two birds with one stone.
Step #2: using the phase diagram of water, we find the new phase change temperature at 1 atmosphere. We need to increase the ice temperature from -160°C to 0°C to liquefy the ice.
Step #3: calculate the energy for enthalpy of fusion of ice
Step #4: calculate the total energy required
The best method for penetrating Europa’s ice
Method #3 is my pick. I know Method #1 requires the least energy.
But, given my experience with mega drills, I don’t see how it’d be possible. Too much can go wrong, especially since humans probably won’t be a part of the mission.
This is important given Europa is 390 million miles away. The fewer equipment we haul from Earth, the better.
That said, our power source will be nuclear reactors. It’s the most reliable energy source.
All this is assuming the tech is available to us. Plus, we’ll need to modify equipment for Europa specifically.
Until then, this is all sci-fi. But, my calculations do paint a picture over the massive scale of this mission.
Further, I’m going to go over all my calculation assumptions. This will, even more, show the complexity of this mission.
Assumptions made in calculations
What I’ve outlined are only ideas that many have thrown around for several decades. My calculations certainly have flaws.
As I mentioned, the calculations for this mission are much more complex than what I’ve done. For starters, proper calculations require the use of calculus.
But, since so much data is missing I didn’t even try. My goal was to only provide a rough energy calculation. I believe I accomplished this.
That said, here are the 9 general assumptions I made in my calculations:
Assumption #1: constructing an insulating tunnel wall
This applies to Method #1 and Method #2.
As we drill into the ice sheet, we’ll need to install a thick metal tube. The tube should be steel containing a high amount of nickel. These alloys are less likely to break in low temperatures.
Also, the tube will span the full width and length of the tunnel.
Otherwise, as we drill down, the tunnel may freeze up behind us. Also, the tunnel will become deformed due to the high pressure it’s under.
Then throw in the tidal forces from Jupiter that could snap our steel tube like a toothpick.
This happens when ice sheets flex and distort from Jupiter’s gravitational forces.
To make matters more difficult, the pressure increases the lower down we go. Also, we’re assuming below the ice is liquid water.
Thus, at the top of the ice sheet, the ice is like granite. Then at the bottom, it’s gooier as we transition from ice to liquid.
So, at the bottom, we’d need to use a different type of material than steel for our tunnel’s wall.
Building our tunnel wall fast
Ice forms when water molecules move slowly because of low energy.
As we apply heat, water molecules move faster. Then once the ice hits the sublimation temperature, the ice changes state.
After we melt the ice in Method #2, this becomes a big concern. The ice may reform higher up in our tunnel the farther the water molecules get from our heat source.
Keep in mind, our tunnel is 25 kilometers in depth.
Also, many other issues exist that’ll drive us to build our tunnel as fast as possible.
Lake Vostok as a guiding example from Earth
The Russians drilled 4 kilometers down into Lake Vostok in Antarctica. They had similar problems.
But, they didn’t try to install a steel outer wall or any other structure into their borehole. The pressure at Lake Vostok is 350 atm (35 MPA) according to Antarctic Ecosystem.
This high pressure is because the gravity on Earth is greater than on Europa. This leads to a -3°C liquid water temperature under the ice.
Also, the Russians melt any ice that enters their tunnel with kerosene and now freon. Then they pump it out.
At Lake Vostok, the surface temperature reaches -89°C. But, the Russian crew drills in warmer months when the temperature reaches -50°C.
On Europa, the surface temperature is -160°C. Yet, Europa’s ocean would be warmer than Lake Vostok according to the phase diagram of water.
We figure this because Europa’s ocean floor may have pressures as high as 130-260 MPa. This pressure is much great than what’s calculated at Lake Vostok.
In short, we can learn a lot from Lake Vostok to apply to Europa.
Assumption #2: heat loss to the icy tunnel wall
There will be heat loss to the walls of our ice tunnel. So, as we heat the ice under the machine in Methods #2 and #3, the surrounding ice will conduct heat away.
In my calculations, I didn’t assume any heat loss through the tunnel wall. If I had, the energy required would be much greater than what I calculated.
The efficiency of our machines would drop.
Assumption #3: ice column is a uniform -160°C
The surface of Europa has a temperature of -160°C. I assumed the entire ice column has a uniform -160°C temperature.
But a thermal gradient does exist.
The farther you go down, the greater the temperature becomes. Otherwise, a liquid ocean wouldn’t exist below the ice as we’re assuming.
So, the temperature increases the closer we get to the ocean. Using the phase diagram of water, this temperature would be 0°C at the bottom of the ice sheet.
Assumption #4: Recondensing of sublimated ice
If the sublimated ice recondenses on the tunnel walls, our machine can get stuck. This only applies to our melting methods.
But not to say our drill can’t get stuck either.
To combat this, we need to insulate around the tunnel wall as we drive deeper into the ice.
Assumption #5: Machine weight
I didn’t consider the machine weights in any of my methods. In other words, the drilling ability with gravitational acceleration wasn’t considered.
In reality, the heavier a machine is, the more force it’ll exert on the ice.
On the same token, if the force of gravity is small, machines will exert less force on the ice. So, these machines will lose efficiency in melting or drilling into Europa.
This is because of reduced contact between the machine and the ice.
On Europa, the gravitational force is almost 1/9 of that of Earth. As a result, it’d be best to use a heavier machine.
Assumption #6: using the specific heat value of water at 1 atm
For water, the specific heat varies with change in pressure. But it’s very slight.
So, I used the specific heat value calculated at 1 atm in my calculations.
To illustrate this, imagine heating up water. The water molecules need to do work against the surrounding atmosphere to expand.
But what happens if the surrounding pressure is very low, like on Jupiter’s moon Europa? The expansion will take less work.
There’s nothing for the water molecules to push against. Because Europa has a very thin atmosphere.
So, the energy for expansion is negligible for pressures different than 1 atm. Especially when you compare to the high amount of energy you need to heat up water.
In short, we don’t lose much accuracy by using the specific heat value calculated on Earth at sea level.
Assumption #7: sublimation of ice happens at -75°C on Europa
The sublimation of water in places of very low pressures and temperatures is not known. Experimental data doesn’t even exist for this region on the phase diagram of water.
But, theoretical data mixed with computed data gives us some insight. It tells us the sublimation of ice is unlikely below -223°C in cosmic conditions. And impossible at -250°C.
I used -75°C in our calculation.
Assumption #8: boiling of ice
When we drill into Europa, we need to remove the column tailings. So, bring the broken ice pieces we’ve drilled to the surface.
By sublimating the ice, we’ll have a steam jet that removes the tailings without added energy. That’s my assumption.
But, as we learned in Assumption #1, the water vapor may turn back into ice.
I’m assuming because Europa has such a thin atmosphere, the ice wouldn’t reform very easily.
Assumption #9: pressurizing the tunnel
To pull off Method #3, we need to pressurize our tunnel to 1 atm. This is an engineering feat of its own.
I assumed it’s doable on Europa. Just like the many other assumptions I made.
The goal of drilling into Europa
This would be a mission for the ages. The greatest human achievement ever.
I will say though, finding a natural crevice and entering from there would be a much easier mission. It’s believed Europa does have cryovolcanoes.
But, our mission here was to explore the options of melting and drilling into Europa’s ice surface.
So, the day we pull this off will spark space exploration to a new level. Especially if we find life on Europa.
We’ll then have a great reason to explore farther corners of the universe. And, make humans multi-planetary species.
What are your thoughts on drilling into Europa? What other challenges do you foresee?
Featured Image Photo Credit: NASA
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Koosha started Engineer Calcs in 2019 to help people better understand the engineering and construction industry, and to discuss various science and engineering-related topics to make people think. He has been working in the engineering and tech industry in California for over 15 years now and is a licensed professional electrical engineer, and also has various entrepreneurial pursuits.
Koosha has an extensive background in the design and specification of electrical systems with areas of expertise including power generation, transmission, distribution, instrumentation and controls, and water distribution and pumping as well as alternative energy (wind, solar, geothermal, and storage).
Koosha is most interested in engineering innovations, the cosmos, our history and future, sports, and fitness.