I’ll show you how to calculate conduit size for cables and wires fast and easily. It’s a great way to check tedious hand calculations.

Also, convenient for calculating conduit sizes on the fly if you’re at a job site or standing in Home Depot. Our free-to-use **conduit sizing calculator **will do all the hard work for you.

Before we start, it’s important we learn the difference between a wire and a cable.

**Difference between wires and cables**

These two terms people often confuse together. But in fact, they’re quite different.

We need to understand the differences, as I’ll use both terms throughout this article.

**Wire:** A single conductor, usually made of copper or aluminum.

**Cable:** A group of conductors or two or more insulated wires bundled together. For example, several insulated wires wrapped in one jacket.

**The conventional way how to calculate conduit size for cables and wires**

In this example, we’ll size a Schedule 40 PVC conduit for the below-listed wires. The sizing will be per the National Electrical Code (NEC).

Circuit # | Number of wires | Insulation Type | Gauge |
---|---|---|---|

1 | 3 | THHN | 1/0 KCMIL |

2 | 2 | THHN | 4 AWG |

3 | 2 | THHN | 8 AWG |

4 | 1 | THW | 10 AWG |

5 | 1 | XHHW | 12 AWG |

**STEP #1: Calculate the wire cross-section area**

Using **NEC Chapter 9 Table 5**, we calculate the cross-section area of each wire. We match the insulation type to the wire gauge in the NEC table.

Circuit # | Area (in²) | Number of wires | Total area (in²) |
---|---|---|---|

1 | 0.1855 | 3 | 0.5565 |

2 | 0.0824 | 2 | 0.1648 |

3 | 0.0366 | 2 | 0.0732 |

4 | 0.0243 | 1 | 0.0243 |

5 | 0.0181 | 1 | 0.0181 |

Next, we add all the wire cross-section areas together: 0.5565 + 0.1648 + 0.0732 + 0.0243 + 0.0181 = 0.8369 in²

**STEP #2: Determine the minimum available conduit space**

We need to find how much space our wires can take up inside of a conduit. NEC Chapter 9 Table 1 tells us the following:

**1 wire:**maximum fill is 53% of the total space inside of a conduit**2 wires:**maximum fill is 31% of the total space inside of a conduit**Over 2 wires:**maximum fill is 40% of the total space inside of a conduit

In our example, we have a total of 9 wires, so we can’t exceed 40% fill in our conduit.

**STEP #3: Determine the conduit size**

Using **NEC Chapter 9 Table 1**, we choose the conduit size, which will meet the NEC 40% fill requirement.

We use our total cross-section wire area in the Schedule 40 PVC conduit table.

According to the NEC table, a 2-inch conduit can have 1.316 in² of fill while remaining below the 40% requirement. This works since our total wire cross-section area is 0.8459 in².

In addition, a conduit size smaller is 1-1/2″, only allowing for a fill of .794 in² fill. This falls short of our total wire cross-section area of 0.8459 in².

**The fast and easy way how to calculate conduit size for cables and wires**

We’ll now learn how to use our conduit sizing calculator using our original example. You’ll see how much faster and easier your calculation becomes. You can also edit your conduit fill on the fly, to instantly test various conduit fill scenarios.

**STEP #1: The conduit sizing calculator**

Go to our **conduit sizing calculator **to get started.

**STEP #2: Initial inputs**

Select your conduit type from the dropdown menu.

Then, select your first conductor type and size. Next, input the conductor count for your first conductor.

In the screenshot below, I’ve entered our Circuit #1 values from our example. The calculator will then automatically find and use the appropriate wire cross-section area.

**Calculator tip:** D*o you have a custom cable or conductor you want to use? If yes, in the “Select Cable / Conductor Type” field, choose “Other / Custom.” Then enter your cable or conductor cross-section area in square inches.*

*Many times, you’ll use a cable or conductor not documented in the NEC. So, you wouldn’t find it in our database.*

**STEP #3: Enter your additional wires**

Hit “Add Row” for each additional wire type you want to place inside your conduit.

In our example, we have 5 total wire types. So, you’ll need to hit the “Add Row” button 4 times.

**STEP #4: Complete the wire inputs**

Repeat STEP #2 for each wire type. Enter all your wire information one by one.

**Calculator tip:** I*f you add an accidental extra row, don’t worry. At the rightmost end of each row, hit the “remove” button.*

**STEP #5: Calculate the conduit fill**

Now, just click the “Calculate” button, and voila, you’ll have your conduit size.

**Calculator tip:** *even after you hit “Calculate” you can go back and modify your inputs. Then hit “Calculate” again to get instantly updated results.*

**STEP #6: Output results**

Scroll down to see your output results after you hit “Calculate.” Here you’ll find all your calculated conduit and wire information. The output results include the following fields:

**Total Conductor Area:**The calculated total conductor cross-section area of all your inputted wires.**Conduit Size:**The calculated minimum conduit size allowed by the NEC.**Total Conduit Area:**The total cross-section area of your selected conduit size.**Total Conduit Fill:**The percent fill of your selected conduit size per your total wire cross-section area. In our example, the conduit fill calculates to 25.43%. Much less than the required 40%. In other words, all the wires combined only take up 25.43% of the total 2-inch conduit cross-section area.

**Comparing our output results**

We found our calculated total wire cross-section area of 0.8369 in² and 2″ conduit size, checks with the hand calculations.

The only difference is, you saved a lot of time. If nothing else, this calculator is a great way to check your hand calculation results.

Additionally, it allows you to edit and explore different conduit-fill scenarios without pulling out your hair. All the while ensuring compliance with the NEC.

**Conclusion**

We welcome any suggestions for added features and feedback on areas for improvement.

Our goal is to make calculating conduit sizes for cables and wires easy for all users.

*How do you typically calculate conduit size for cables?*

Koosha started Engineer Calcs in 2020 to help people better understand the engineering and construction industry, and to discuss various science and engineering-related topics to make people think. He has been working in the engineering and tech industry in California for over 15 years now and is a licensed professional electrical engineer, and also has various entrepreneurial pursuits.

Koosha has an extensive background in the design and specification of electrical systems with areas of expertise including power generation, transmission, distribution, instrumentation and controls, and water distribution and pumping as well as alternative energy (wind, solar, geothermal, and storage).

Koosha is most interested in engineering innovations, the cosmos, our history and future, sports, and fitness.